The smallest plant is considered to be a floating duck from Australian water bodies – its length is 0.6 mm and width is 0.33 mm, the weight of an individual copy is 0.00015 g. The thickest stem is at the pointed cypress from Mexico (Oahana state), known as “El Arbol del Tule.
With a tree height of 41 m, the girth of its trunk at chest level was 35.8 m (1982). The European chestnut tree, known as the Tree of a Hundred Horses, on Mount Etna in Sicily had a girth of 57.9 m (1770-1780).
The oldest clone (that is, the offspring of a vegetatively propagated plant) of creosote plants was found in Southern California (USA) in 1980. It is believed that its age is 11,700 years. In 1981 it was established that the age of some lichens growing in Antarctica is at least 10 thousand years. The most northern plants are yellow poppies and low-growing arctic willow; they grow in the Far North (83 ° N). The southernmost plant is hair grass, discovered in 1981 on the island of Exile in Antarctica (68 ° 21 ′ S.). The highest growing ones are the plants discovered in 1955 by N. D. Jayal in the Himalayas at an altitude of 6,400 meters – Himalayan Hermaniopsis and a lobed buttercup.
The longest plant is Liana climbing climber. In 1988, such a liana was found in the United States, reaching a length of 339.5 m. The tallest eucalyptus on the bank of the Watts River (Australia, Victoria), which was reported in 1872, was the highest tree ever measured on the planet. Forester William Ferguson.
The height of the eucalyptus was 132.6 m and most likely reached 152.4 m earlier. The rivals of this eucalyptus are: Douglas sionwood from the Lynn Valley (British Columbia, message 1902) – 126.5 m and the redwood evergreen from Gverneville (USA, California , message 1873) – 112 m. Of deciduous trees, at the present time, regal eucalyptus from Tasmania is considered the highest – 95 m.
The most massive tree growing on Earth is an instance of a giant sequoia, which is called “General Sherman.” This tree grows in Sequoia National Park (USA, California), its height is 83.8 m, its girth at 1.52 m from the surface of the earth is 25.1 m (1989). It is estimated that the trunk of this giant contains 1500 m3 of wood.
The estimated weight of the tree, including the root system, corresponds to about 2,500 tons. The oldest tree registered by scientists is pine, which is long-lived, grew at an altitude of 3275 m above sea level in Eastern Nevada (USA). It was estimated that she is 5100 years old. The oldest living tree also belongs to this species.
Known by the name “Methuselah” pine durable, growing at an altitude of 3050 m in the White Mountains (USA, California), already 4700 years. Other long-lived trees are known: plane tree from the city of Ordubad (Azerbaijan) – it is more than 2 thousand years old; an oak tree called “Old Man of Stelmuzh” (Lithuania) – he is about 2 thousand years old; Berry Yew from Crimea (grows near Mount Ai-Petri) – he is about 1200 years old; Linden from the park of the city of Svetlogorsk (Kaliningrad region) – she is about 500 years old; pine from the Kivach reserve (Karelia) – it is more than 350 years old. The most watery cells have the roots of incense pine – 90.2%; fruits of watermelon and cucumber – 92.1%; internal lettuce leaves – 94.8%. The oldest can be considered Antarctic cortical lichens, which are at least 10,000 years old. The lowest water content (5.2%) is noted in the cells of the seeds of the peanut (peanut).
The longest cells are the plant fibers of the abacus (textile banana). Manila hemp – the fiber obtained from the leaves of this plant – consists of dead cells that have up to 3.5 m. The largest diameter of the vessel-cells of the clematis creeper is 0.7 mm. They are visible to the naked eye. The strongest fiber cells have Chinese nettle (ramie white).
The tensile strength of the fibers of this plant is 91–99 kilograms per 1 mm2. The longest roots are 120 m from the wild fig growing near the Echo cave in East Transvaal (South Africa). In 1950 there was a message from Scotland about elm roots, at least 110 m long.
The deepest roots are desert plants. The root system of the serpent-flowered or mezkit shrub reaches depths of over 50 m, and camel thorn has 20 m. The largest crown formed by branches with leaves and backing roots has a banyan tree that has been growing since 1787. in the Indian Botanical Garden in Calcutta. The circumference of his crown is 412 m, and the area – 1.2 hectares. The crown of banyan is supported by 1,775 pillar-like root-supports.
The fastest growth is observed in bamboo, which is, from a botanical point of view, a tree grass. Within 24 hours, shoots of some bamboo species grow by almost 1 m. The fastest growing tree is the sickle-shaped albition from Malaysia. It grows at a rate of 10.74 m per year.
One copy of the tree of this species reached a height of 30.48 m in 64 months. The slowest growing tree is an edible dion from Mexico. Over the year, this 9.9 cm high tree has grown by only 0.76 mm. He is already 120 years old.