The largest territory occupied by forest
For the Boreal coniferous forest of Eurasia, the Turkish-Tatar name “taiga” was fixed. Taiga forms a belt, sometimes reaching a width of 2,000 km and covering the entire globe. This belt runs from the shores of the Pacific Ocean, from Alaska, across the entire North American continent to the Atlantic Ocean itself.
In the opposite direction, the taiga runs beyond the Bering Strait, through the whole of Siberia and the European part of Russia, right up to Scandinavia.
From one end of the taiga to the other – a distance of 10,000 km. Its southern border is in Asia at 55 parallels of northern latitude, in Europe – at 60 parallels, and in North America – at 45 parallels of northern latitude.
In the north, the taiga decreases markedly and passes into the forest tundra and tundra.
Taiga, in terms of climatic conditions, has a short growing season in summer (3-4 months), with a difference of summer and winter temperatures reaching 60 ″ C, and, as a result, with a small amount of precipitation (200-500 mm).
For these places is characterized by thick snow cover. On the northern border of the forest, the average monthly temperature of the warmest month of the year is +10 ″ C. In this case, the lowest temperature in the coldest month does not matter. Coniferous forests dominated by Dahurian larch (Larix dahurica) also grow in Oimyakon or Verkhoyansk, in Yakutia, where in winter the temperature drops to -60’C.
In the wide open spaces where permafrost reigns (permafrost), the humidity is high due to the melting of ice in the ground, despite the small amount of precipitation. The process of growing trees is unusually slow. You can use trees only at the age of 200-400 years.
Despite this, from an economic point of view, boreal coniferous forest is the richest source of soft industrial wood.
Initially, the northern taiga had a rich fauna. Some large mammals, such as the wild tour, are completely extinct, while others live only because they are protected (elk, bison, bear, wolverine).
Typical representatives of the taiga fauna are lynx, forest cat, deer, wolf, fox, sable, badger, beaver, ermine, various species of birds; A lot of fish live in the rivers, especially salmonids. Peatlands inhabit a lot of insects.
Boreal coniferous forest or taiga is the richest forest source in the world. Here, mainly trees such as spruce (Picea), pine (Pinus), fir (Abies), larch (Larix) grow.
Deciduous trees are few and are represented by birch (Betula), poplar (Populus), alder (Alnus), willow (Salix) and rowan (Sorbus). Heather and lingonberry grow on undergrowths, and mosses grow from low-growing plants.