Krasnokutsky arboretum is one of the oldest arboretums in Ukraine, whose history goes back over 200 years. Presumably founded in 1793. Located in a picturesque area of the Kharkiv region on the outskirts of the village of Krasnokutsk in the village of Osnovintsy. Subordinate Krasnokutskoy station gardening. The park was laid by landowner Ivan Nazarovich Karazin, the brother of the founder of Kharkov University.
At first, the Krasnokutsky arboretum was a local architectural monument – the security number 717 of the List of Monuments, approved by the decision of the Kharkiv Regional Executive Committee of March 5, 1992. Subsequently, the park received the status of a monument of landscape art of national importance, now researchers are trying to get for it the status of a national park.
For the main compositional axis of the Krasnokutsk arboretum, the ravine watershed was adopted, which gradually passes into a wide gully. On the bottom of the ravine are ponds, dams, streams. The slopes are formed by terraces, the paths are equipped with the possibility of exploring the landscapes and compositions of various plants. The only wide alley of the arboretum, lined with fir trees, passes through its southern outskirts and begins immediately at the main entrance.
The park has two ponds, three settling ponds, four sources – wells with water. On the eastern side of the ravine preserved underground passages.
Trees in the arboretum are mainly placed in groups and carefully selected. Blue and silver pine planted on the background, which emphasizes their color. Glades and separate paths are lined with brightly flowering bushes. Climbing plants adorn arbors, pergolas, individual trees and a specially built tower.
There is a small island on the upper pond, which was built during the times of Karazin – the so-called “Island of Love”, which is connected to the main path by a bridge. Today, it is lined with stone two rings and installed an arbor. Among the newlyweds of Krasnokutsk, Osnovintsy and other villages of the district there is a tradition to visit this island and take pictures on it after marriage registration in the registry office.
On the same pond lotuses bloom – red, pink, lemon, cream and white. Also on the ponds live swans, and at the main entrance behind the fence – a family of roes. In total, the park’s collection of researchers has three dozen representatives of the fauna – they are hedgehogs, owls, owls, squirrels. There are many nightingales, pigeons, starlings, tits, thrushes and other birds. Sometimes the Orioles and hoopes fly. And from the neighboring forests to the park roe deer and wild boar roam, sometimes marten can be found.
At the turn of the millennia, wooden figures also began to appear in the arboretum – the works of the Krasnokutsk artist and sculptor: a learned cat, a squirrel, Baba Yaga with a hut, the Serpent Gorynych, the devil and others.
Along the perimeter, the park is surrounded by tall trees that remained from the former forest or were planted during the construction of the park and protect the arboretum from dry winds in the summer and cold winds in the winter, and ponds and springs moisten and cool the air in the summer, which creates a special microclimate here.
Krasnokutsky arboretum was founded on the site of the Peter and Paul Monastery. The monastery, built shortly after the founding of the Red Kut, existed for almost 100 years, after which, under the orders of Catherine II, it was closed. Land passed into the possession of Nazar Alexandrovich Karazin.
He was an extraordinarily well-educated and intelligent man, perfectly mastered 5 languages, and during the war with Turkey, he became famous as a good intelligence officer. The founder of the park is considered to be his son, Ivan Nazarovich, although there is information that his elder brother Vasily, the founder of Kharkov University, also had a hand in its creation. To create the park, he spared neither the strength nor the time, but unfortunately, he died at the age of only 56 years. The work on the arrangement of the park was continued by his son Ivan Ivanovich.
In fact, the Karamzins were the first Ukrainian acclimatizers. They brought more than 600 species of plants, most of which had not been found on the territory of Ukraine until then. Among them are maple, acacia, sycamore and sophora. Sprouts were brought from China, Japan, North and South America, many European countries. Having taken root in the arboretum, they gradually spread throughout Ukraine.
Krasnokutsky arboretum was very badly damaged during the Second World War. Many exotic species of trees were destroyed and the park, which was not controlled by anyone, was overgrown with ordinary shrubs. By 1957, the number of species decreased to 180. Today, there are about 350 plant species and 30 species of fauna in the park.
To this day, more than 300 species have survived in the Krasnokutsk arboretum…